General Features


DUAL-PAM-100 instruments can measure simultaneously a single-channel signal (e.g., chlorophyll fluorescence) and a two-channel signal (e.g. P700- dependent absorption changes at 820 nm relative to 870 nm). Also, a single wavelength and a dual wavelength absorption signal can be concurrently measured as in the case of the P515/535 setup for parallel determination of the electrochromic band shift and scattering changes.

For the DUAL-PAM-100, a ground-breaking pulse-modulation technique has been developed. This new technique forms the basis for measuring pairs of signals concurrently and at outstandingly high time resolution.


Other Distinctive Features of the

Integrated red, blue, far-red actinic LED lamps and saturating single and multiple turnover flash lamps.

An extremely wide range of measuring light frequencies (1 Hz to 400 kHz) allows assessment of Fo level fluorescence as well as recording of fast kinetics at high time resolution (e.g. polyphasic fluorescence rise or flash relaxation kinetics).

Extension of the saturation pulse method to derive from P700 measurements information on the use of absorbed light energy in PSI.

All light sources can be switched with 2.5 μs time resolution under software control.

Operation via automated measuring routines (script file programming).