Examples of Application


Several articles in our internet journal (PAM Application News, PAN) inform about the wide range of application of the DUAL-PAM-100 measuring system and important aspects of saturation pulse analyses of PS I and PS II.

PAN (2009) 2: 1-13

New NADPH/9-AA module for the DUAL-PAM-100: Description, operation and examples of application.
By Ulrich Schreiber and Christof Klughammer.

The NADPH/9-AA module is a new accessory of the DUAL-PAM-100 system which excites fluorescence at 365 nm and detects fluorescence in the 420 to 580 nm range. The new module permits measuring of light-induced changes of NADPH fluorescence in suspensions of isolated chloroplasts, algae and cyanobacteria. Technical features of the module are outlined and examples of application are introduced. Also simultaneous measurements of chlorophyll (Chl) and NADPH fluorescence are presented. It is show that saturation pulses can serve for estimating the extent of NADP reduction in the steady state.


PAN (2008) 1: 27 - 35

Complementary PS II quantum yields calculated from simple fluorescence parameters measured by PAM fluorometry and the Saturation Pulse method.
By Christof Klughammer and Ulrich Schreiber.

The fate of excitation energy in PS II is comprehensively described by the complementary quantum yields Y(II) + Y(NPQ) + Y(NO) = 1. It is shown that the simple expressions for Y(NO) and Y(NPQ) proposed by Genty et al. (1996), which do not contain Fo', are fully equivalent to the much more complex expressions of Kramer et al. (2004) and are valid for both lake and puddle models. The practical meaning of the complementary quantum yields is discussed.


PAN (2008) 1: 21 - 24

Monitoring the effects of reduced PS II antenna size on quantum yields of photosystems I and II using the DUAL-PAM-100 measuring system. By Erhard Pfündel, Christof Klughammer and Ulrich Schreiber.

The DUAL-PAM-100 is employed to analyze Chl b-less barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare cv. Donaria mutant chlorina-f2 2800) and the corresponding wild-type leaves. The results show that the small PS II antenna size in the mutant affects both, PS I and PS II photochemistry.


PAN (2008) 1: 15 - 18

Non-photochemical fluorescence quenching and quantum yields in PS II and PS I: Analysis of heat-induced limitations using Maxi-Imaging-PAM and DUAL-PAM-100. By Ulrich Schreiber and Christof Klughammer.

In this article the large potential of combined measurements with the Maxi version of the Imaging-PAM and the DUAL-PAM-100 are demonstrated.


PAN (2008) 1: 11 - 14

Saturation Pulse method for assessment of energy conversion in PS I. By Christof Klughammer and Ulrich Schreiber.

The paper summarizes the theoretical background of the saturating pulse method which is utilized by the DUAL-PAM-100 instrument to determine the quantum yields of photochemical energy conversion and nonphotochemical energy dissipation in PS I.


PAN (2008) 1: 1 - 10

New accessory for the DUAL-PAM-100: The P515/535 module and examples of its application. By Ulrich Schreiber and Christof Klughammer.

The technical features of the P515/535 module are outlined and some typical examples of application are presented.The device provides information on membrane potential, membrane energization ("scattering"), and proton gradient, as well as on proton and electron fluxes.