For probing of microscopic objects down to the single chloroplast
The MICROSCOPY-PAM is an extremely sensitive non-imaging chlorophyll fluorometer, which can measure smallest spots in microscopic specimen like tissue preparations or suspensions. The fluorometer consists of a modified epi-fluorescence microscope equipped with a modulated LED light source and a photomultiplier for detection of modulated chlorophyll fluorescence.
Outstanding Properties of the MICROSCOPY-PAM
- Fluorescence detection by a highly sensitive red-enhanced photomultiplier tube
- Single cell analysis
- Version with blue or red light available
Components of the MICROSCOPY-PAM
The MICROSCOPY-PAM system uses a Zeiss AxioScope.A1 epifluorescence microscope. The standard version of the microscope is equipped with a wide-aperture Zeiss Fluar objective lens with 20-fold magnification, and a blue 470 nm Zeiss LED module for fluorescence excitation. A red-orange 625 nm Zeiss LED module is available as alternative light source.
A special pulse modulation regime permits the use if the same LED module as source for measuring and actinic light as well as for saturation pulses.
Chlorophyll fluorescence is detected by a photomultiplier mounted on a special detector-ocular of the microscope. The ocular is equipped with an iris diaphragm with which the field of view can be narrowed down. A special dichroic beamsplitter filterset filters out the broadband fluorescence emission (λ>650 nm).
Fluorescence excitation and detection are controlled by the PAM-CONTROL unit, which allows stand-alone operation of the MICROSCOPY-PAM but also functions as an interface for operation of the system by a Windows computer.
The PAM-CONTROL unit can be operated by the WinControl software versions 2 or 3. The system includes, an RS 232 cable, a USB-RS 232 adapter (when an RS-232 port is not available), a charger MINI-PAM/L, a cable to connect a chart recorder, and a transport box.