MONITORING-PAM

Fluorometer for Long-term Monitoring of Photosynthesis

The chlorophyll fluorometer MONITORING-PAM is designed for unattended, long-term and multi-site monitoring of chlorophyll fluorescence in air or underwater. At each measuring site, compact and robust emitter-detector units measure modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and perform saturation pulse analysis.

Depending on system configuration, up to seven sites per MONITORING-PAM system can be measured simultaneously. At each site, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at sample level is recorded so that relative electron transport rates can be derived from PAR data and photochemical yields of photosystem II.

General Features MONITORING-PAM

The multi-site chlorophyll fluorometer MONITORING-PAM operates several emitter-detector heads in parallel. A clip attached to each head positions the sample at defined distance and angle. Two types of emitterdetector heads are available which are specially designed for long-term operation in the field or under water.

Each emitter-detector head is equipped with a blue power LED. Based on exact timing of function, this LED provides modulated fluorescence excitation light, actinic light and saturation flashes. A lens focuses the LED radiation on the sample, and collects fluorescence. Maximum saturation pulse intensity at sample level exceeds 8500 μmol m-2 s-1.