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Underwater Fluorometer with Miniature Spectrometer
The launch of the DIVING-PAM underwater fluorometer started the era of PAM fluorescence analysis of photosynthetic organisms in their natural habitat. The second-generation underwater fluorometer, the DIVING-PAM-II, extents this era with the latest technology.
The DIVING-PAM-II exclusively uses LEDs as internal light sources, which permits exact timing of switching processes, and prevents overheating by continuous illumination. A built-in PAR sensor continuously records the intensity of internal light. An energy-efficient B/W screen shows data and settings numerically and graphically.
The DIVING-PAM-II system includes a Miniature Spectrometer MINI-SPEC to measures spectra of PAR, which vary significantly with water depth. The total external PAR is automatically calculated. The spectrometer also permits spectral analyses of the sample’s fluorescence emission and reflectance.
Outstanding Properties of the DIVING-PAM-II
- System package with underwater spectrometer
- Operating range up to 50 m diving depth
- Internal PAR sensor
- Red or blue plus far-red light
General Features DIVING-PAM-II
The cylinder-shaped DIVING-PAM-II fluorometer is approved for water depth down to 50 m. Advanced sensors record pressure and temperature. A high power LED is used for actinic light and saturation pulses. A far red LED for specific PS I excitation is installed. A proven fiberoptics connects sample and DIVING-PAM-II. All relevant parameters of saturation pulse analysis are automatically calculated.
Scientific dive to study aquatic photosynthesis. By courtesy of Arnaud Abadie.
Photosynthesis examined in hot springs of Greenland. By courtesy of Prof. Michael Kühl.
DIVING-PAM-II and Universal Sample Holder DIVING-II-USH.
Transport case DIVING-PAM-II/T.
A transflective screen displays saturation pulse and kinetic data. Only 10 infrared reflection switches control data display and settings. A Windows computer can also operate the DIVING-PAM-II. Underwater cables are available for long-term experiments controlled by a Windows computer. Wireless LAN allows convenient data download.
The battery capacity lasts for more than 1,300, the internal flash memory for more than 27,000 PS II yield measurements. The system includes, among other things, a 5 m underwater cable, the WinControl-3 software and a rugged outdoor transport case. In dry environment, accessories of the MINI-PAM-II fluorometer can be operated by the DIVING-PAM-II.